Tutor for macOS Mojave

A closer look at the Apple Menu

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at the Apple Menu and the different options we have in the Apple Menu.

Location of the Apple Menu
The Apple Menu is always located in the upper left corner of your display and is always available. It does not matter which app you are in, you will always have access to the Apple Menu.

Apple Menu Features
The Apple menu gives you access to various features of the Mac, and as I stated above, these are always available to you.

  • About this Mac: This will open a window showing you various information about your Mac including which macOS you are using, the serial number, storage options, and support options.
  • System Preferences: This opens the System Preferences, which is where you can set the default behavior of your Mac.
  • Mac App Store: This will open the Mac App Store app.
  • Recent Items: This will show you your recent apps that you’ve opened and recent documents you’ve opened. You can select any one of them to open them again.
  • Force Quit: Select this to open a window showing all your open apps. From there you can select any one of the apps and force quit them. When you force quit them, the app does not save any changes.
  • Sleep: Select this to put your Mac to sleep.
  • Restart: This will restart your computer.
  • Shutdown: This will shut down your Mac.
  • Lock Screen: This will lock your screen. When you select this, to unlock the screen again, you’ll need to enter your Mac password.
  • Logout: This will log the mac out of the current user. When you select this, you will be brought to a screen where all your users are lists, and you can choose the user account you want to open.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Using the Secondary Menu

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at the Secondary Menu. With the Secondary menu, you have access to common tools such as copy, paste, as well as specific features for an app.

Accessing the Secondary Menu
There are a few ways to access the Secondary Menu on the Mac.

  • Control-Click: If you hold down the Control key and click, you’ll see the menu pop up under your cursor. Just select the menu option you want to use when it pops up.
  • Two-finger tap with a Trackpad: If you have a trackpad, you can tap the trackpad with two fingers, when you do this, the menu will pop up under your cursor.
  • Mouse: If you want to access the Secondary Menu with a mouse, you need to open your System Preferences and select the Mouse Preference Pane. From there, you can choose which button you want to use for the Secondary Click.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Working with Finder Windows

In this lesson for macOS Mojave, I look at how you work with Finder Windows on the Mac. Finder windows are how you explore your Mac, as well as organize all your files and folders. It’s a crucial part of working with your Mac.

Opening a Finder Window
If you do not have any Finder windows open, when you click on the Finder in the Dock, a new Finder window will open. If there are already windows open, it will bring one of them forward. If you want to create a new Finder window, you go up to File in the Menu Bar and select New Finder Window.

Anatomy of a Window
A Finder window comprises of a sidebar on the left. This sidebar gives you quick access to various folders, iCloud Drive, different network locations, and tags. We look at these various items in detail throughout the tutorial including how you can customize the sidebar. But for now, just think of it as an easy way to get to various folders.

A Finder window also has a Toolbar. This is located across the top of the window and gives you quick access to various tools including different ways to view your files and folders, access to tasks, and more. This is also where you click-and-drag to move a window.

Resizing a Window
Finder windows are easily resizable. To resize a window, just drag any one of the edges or corners of the window you want to resize. When you get to the edge, you will see the cursor change into an arrow. Once it changes, you click-and-drag to resize the window.

Opening Multiple Windows
You can open multiple Finder windows. Just go to File in the Menu Bar and select ‘New Finder Window.’ When you do this, a new window will open. You can click on any folder in the sidebar to open that specific window to that folder or location. The frontmost window will have a slightly darker toolbar and the dots to close, minimize, and open in full-screen will have color. These dots are located in the upper left corner of the window.

Closing, Minimizing and opening a Window in Full-Screen
To close, minimize, or open a window in full-screen, you click on one of the three dots in the upper left corner of a window.

  • Red Dot – the red dot closes the window.
  • Yellow Dot – the yellow dot minimizes the window. When you minimize it, it moves the window to the Dock. Once it’s in the dock, you can click on it to ‘open’ it again.
  • Green Dot – The green dot opens the window in full screen. Once it is in full screen, it is no longer a ‘window.’ Also, you will see the Menu Bar and Dock hide. To show them again, just bring your cursor to the top or bottom of your display. To bring it back to a standard window, move your cursor to the top right of your display and click on the green dot again.

Selecting a Window
If you have multiple windows open, you can select any one of them by clicking on the window. When you do this, it brings it to the front. You can also go to Windows in the Menu Bar and select the window you want to bring forward.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Working with Applications in the Dock

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at how to work with applications in the Dock, including viewing open applications in the Dock, favoriting or adding an application to the Dock, setting an application to open when you log in to your Mac, and show an application in the Finder from the Dock.

Applications and the Dock
The Dock is divided into three areas – applications, recent applications (new in macOS Mojave), and documents and folders. You’ll see vertical lines separating these three areas. Applications are located on the left. We are going to focus on applications and the Dock in this lesson.

View which Applications are Open
Since the Dock stores your favorite application as well as open applications, how can you tell which applications are open? When you open an application, a black dot will appear below the icon in the Dock. If you see an application without this dot, but in the dock, this means it is a favorite, but now open. As soon as you open it, the dot will be there.

Favoriting an Application
To add an application to the Dock, so you have easy access to it, open your Applications folder and drag the application you want to favorite onto the Dock. You need to drag it to the right side of the vertical line. When you favorite an app, it does not remove it from the Applications folder, and you can still open it through the Applications folder.

Opening an Application at Login
You can set an application to open when you log in to your computer through the dock. Just click-and-hold on the application you want to open at login. You need to do this with the application icon in the Dock. When you do this, you will see a popup menu with various options. Under Options, you will see Open at Login. Select this to open the application at login, deselect to have it no longer open at login.

Showing the Application in the Finder
You can also sow the Application in the Finder through the popup menu when you click-and-hold on the application icon in the Dock. When you select this, a Finder window will open to the folder the application is in. Usually, this is the Applications folder.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Using Keyboard Shortcuts

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at how to get around the Mac using keyboard shortcuts. With keyboard shortcuts, you can access various features including folders just by a keyboard shortcut instead of using the mouse or trackpad. You don’t have to use keyboard shortcuts, but in some cases, they do make getting around the Mac easier.

What a Keyboard Shortcut Is
When you press a combination of keys, your Mac will perform a specific function. These keys you press are the keyboard shortcut. These keys include the Command key, Option key, and Control key. These are all located on your keyboard. Newer Macs will also include the symbol on the key. To see if there is a keyboard shortcut for a specific function, such as opening a new Finder window, you look at the Menu Bar, under the menu you select you will see the different options you have. To the right of the option or task will be the keyboard shortcut.

Using a Keyboard Shortcut
To use a keyboard shortcut, you just tap the keys you want, and the task will be performed. As an example, command-N will open a new Finder Window. A lot of keyboard shortcuts work across different apps, as an example, when you are in an app, command-Q will quit the app.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

A look at the Folder Hierarchy of the Mac

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at the folder hierarchy of macOS Mojave. The better you understand how your Mac is organized, the easier it will be to keep it organized with your files and folders.

Folder Structure
macOS is installed the Macintosh HD by default. This is the hard drive that is on your computer. Think of this hard drive as a filing cabinet. When you open Macintosh HD, you’ll see 4 folders, think of these for folders as drawers in your filing cabinet. These four folders are:

  • Applications: This is where all your applications are stored. If you install a new application, it will be installed in this folder. Nothing else should be stored in this folder.
  • Library and System: These next two folders are used by macOS and should not be touched.
  • Users: This last folder contains all the user files and folders including your documents and downloads. Your computer can have multiple users, so when you open the Users folder, you will see all your users. In most cases, it will just be a single user. When you open the users’ folder, you will see the documents, downloads, music, movies, and other folders. This is where all the users’ files and folders are stored.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Accessing Folders and Navigating Folders

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at how you can access various folders including your Documents folder or Download folder, as well as how to navigate folders on the Mac.

Accessing Folders from the Menu Bar
You can easily access a number of folders the Mac uses including the Applications folder, Documents folder, Downloads folder, and more. To see and select which one of the folders you want to ope, go the ‘Go’ menu in the Menu Bar. You do have to be in the FInder to see this menu. Once you click on ‘Go,’ you’ll see all the folders you have access too from this menu. Just select the folder you want to open top open it in the Finder.

Accessing Folders from the Sidebar in a WIndow
When you have a Finder window open, on the left of the window is a sidebar. In this sidebar will be a number of folders. Just select the folder you want to open, and your window will open to that folder.

Opening Folders
When you are looking at your folders in a Finder window, you just double click on it to open it. When looking at your folders in list view, you can also click on the triangle to the left of the folder name to open the folder. In column view, when you select a folder, the contents of that folder will be shown in the next column.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Switching between Open Applications

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at how to switch between your open applications including using keyboard shortcuts.

Switching by Windows
You can easily switch between your open applications by clicking on the application window you want to switch to. This works great when you do not have a lot of windows open, but if you do, you may want to look at using the Dock to switch or using a keyboard shortcut. Also, when you use this method, it brings only the one window you click on forward if the application has other windows open, it does not bring those forward unless you click on them.

Using the Dock
You can also click on the application icon on the Dock to switch to that application. When you do this, it brings all the windows forward for that application.

Using Command-Tab Keyboard Shortcut
If you hold down the command key and press the tab key, you will get an overlay showing all your open applications. Keep pressing the tab key to cycle through these apps. When you release the keys, your Mac will switch to that app. This method also brings all the open window forward.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Finding your Applications Folder

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at the different ways you can find your Applications folder, which is where all your Applications for your Mac are located. I also take a real quick look at how you can access your Applications from the Launchpad app.

Applications Location
The Applications folder is located under your Macintosh HD. This folder contains all your applications. If you install an application, this is where it will be installed by default. The Applications folder is accessible by any user on your Mac. Each user also has an Applications folder, This folder is located within the users Home folder along with the user’s documents, download, and other folders. Any application install in this folder is only accessible by that user.

Accessing Applications under Go in the Menu Bar
If you are in the Finder, you can select Go in the Menu Bar and then select Applications. When you do this, the Applications folder that contains all the applications for all the users will open in a new window.

Accessing Applications from the Sidebar in a Finder Window
By default, in the sidebar of a Finder window, you will see Applications. Select this to open your current Finder window to your Applications folder that contains all the applications for all the users.

Accessing Applications from Launchpad
Launchpad is an application that is installed on your Dock by default. When you open this application, it shows you all your applications in sheets, much like the iPhone or iPad does. You can swipe to the left or right to get to the different sheets as well as search for an application from the search field at the top of the display when Launchpad is open.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Documents and Folders in the Dock

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at how to work with documents and folders in the Dock. With documents, we can place documents we need easy access to in the Dock, and with folders, we can easily access the contents of a folder when it is in the Dock.

Documents and Folders location in the Dock
As you learned in the previous lesson, the Dock is divided into three areas – applications, recent applications (new in macOS Mojave), and documents and folders. You’ll see vertical lines separating these three areas. Documents and folders are located on the right side of the Dock.

Placing a Document or Folder in the Dock
To place a document or folder in the Dock, just drag it to the right side of the Dock and put it where you want. You cannot place them where the applications are. When you place a document or folder in the Dock, it does not move the original location of the document or folder, it just gives you easy access to that document or folder.

Accessing Files and Folders from a Folder in the Dock
To access the files and folders in a folder you have placed in the Dock, you just click on the folder icon in the Dock. You will see the contents of the folder show as a popup. The view of the folder contents will change depending on how many items are in the folder.

Changing the Folder Icon in the Dock
When you place a folder in the Dock, you will see it represented by an icon. You can change what that icon is by control-clicking (holding down the control key and clicking) on the folder in the Dock. From there you will see Display As, you can display the folder icon as a folder or a stack. The folder is just a simple icon or image of a folder. The Stack option shows the items in the folder stacked.

Changing the View of the Documents in a Folder
When you click on a folder while it is in the Dock, you will see the folder’s contents. The way you see them will change depending on how many items are in the folder. You can also select how you want to view them yourself. Again control-click on the folder in the Dock, you’ll see a popup with View Content As.

  • Fan: This will display all the items in a fan. If you have a lot of items, to see all of them, you will have to click on the arrow at the top of the documents listed in your folder. This view is generally used when you have fewer items in the folder.
  • Grid: The Grid view is better for folders with a lot of items. You see all the items in the folder as a larger icon. You can quickly scroll through the items while in the view.
  • List: The List view shows all the items in the folder in a list. Similar to Grid view, this view works with folders with a lot of items.
  • Automatic: This option will change the view automatically based on the number of items in the folder.

Changing the Sort Order
You can also change the sort order of the items in a folder when you click on the folder while in the Dock. Again, control-click on the folder in the Dock and select how you want the items to be sorted.

Showing the Folder in the Finder
If you want to show the folder in a Finder window, control-click on the folder in the Dock and select Show in Finder under Options. The folder will open in a new Finder window.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Opening Applications with Spotlight

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at how you can open applications using Spotlight. This is one of my favorite or most common ways I open applications. So what is Spotlight Search? Spotlight Search is how we search the Mac for documents, folders, and even applications. What’s nice about Spotlight is once you find what you are looking for you can press the Return key and whatever you have selected will open, including applications.

Bringing Up Spotlight Search
To bring up Spotlight Search, you click on the magnifying glass menu extra in the left side of the Menu Bar. When you click on this, you will get a field that overlays your window. You can also bring up Spotlight Search by using a keyboard shortcut – Command key and the space bar. This is how I bring up Spotlight Search, I hardly ever click on the menu extra.

Searching for Applications
Once you bring up Spotlight Search, all you need to do is start typing the name of the application. You will see a number of results, and in most cases, the application will be a top hit and already selected. Just hit the return key to open it. If it is not selected, you can use the arrows keys to select it, then hit the return key to open the application.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Removing or Uninstalling Applications

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at the different ways you uninstall or remove applications. When you uninstall an application, the overall goal is to remove them from the Applications folder.

Using Launchpad to remove Apps
If you’ve downloaded an app from the App Store, you can use Launchpad to delete or remove the application. You can only remove apps downloaded from the App Store using this method. Open Launchpad and then click-and-hold on any of the application icons. They will start jiggling. Apps that have been downloaded from the App Store will have an ‘x’ in the corner above the icon. Click on the ‘x’ to remove the app. It will be removed from Launchpad and from the Applications folder.

Deleting by throwing the Application in the Trash
This method works for both apps that have been downloaded from the App Store and app you’ve installed using other methods. Just open your Applications folder, find the app you want to delete, and move it to the trash. If the app was downloaded from the App Store, the Mac will ask for your user account password. Enter the password to complete the uninstall.

Using an Uninstaller
In rare cases, an app will have an uninstaller. This is similar to having an installer, but instead of installing the app, when you open the uninstaller, you will be guided on how to remove the app. To see if an app uses an uninstaller, you can usually go to the app’s website.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Installing Applications

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at the different ways you install applications. When you install applications, the overall goal is to install them in the Applications folder. When you download an app from the App Store, it installs it in the Applications folder, if you use an installer, it will install the app in the Applications folder. There are four basic ways to install an app in the Applications folder.

Installing through the App Store
This is the easiest way to install an app. When you purchase an app in the App Store, it will automatically install it in your Applications folder.

Downloading an App
You can also download an application, let’s say from the developer’s website, it will download it through Safari and place it in the Downloads folder by default. Once the app is downloaded, you’ll want to move it to the Applications folder to finish the installation.

Installing from an Installer
In some cases when you download an app, again let’s say from a developer’s website, it will come as a package. The icon will look like a box in most cases. This is an installer. What you need to do to finish the installation is open the package. From there the installer will guide you through installing the app. When finished, the app will be in your Applications folder. You can delete the installer or package in your downloads folder once the app is installed.

Installing from a DMG file
With this type of installation, you download a DMG file to your downloads folder. This type of file is a virtual disk. Once it is downloaded, you open the file. When you open it, you will see a virtual drive on your desktop. Open that virtual disk to see your application. From there, you need to drag the application to the Applications folder. When finished installing, you can delete the DMG file and eject the virtual disk on your desktop.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Customizing the Dock

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at customize the Dock, including a look at the Dock’s preferences, changing the size of the Dock, and changing the location of the Dock.

Accessing the Docks Preferences
To access the Docks preferences, you need to open System Preferences, which is located under the Apple Menu in the upper left corner. In the window that opens, click on Dock to access the Doc’s preferences.

Changing the size of the Dock
The first option is for adjusting the size of the Dock. Drag the slider to the left or right to change the size of the icons in the Dock.

Using Magnification
When you turn this on, when you hover the cursor over the dock, the icon under the Dock will be magnified. For this to work, the slider must be set to be larger than the dock is set above it.

Changing the Location of the Dock
By default, the Dock is pinned to the bottom of your display. Select left or right to pin it to the left or right.

Minimize Windows Options
When you minimize a Finder window, by clicking on the yellow dot of a window, it minimizes into the Dock, the right side of the Dock where your documents and folders are. You can set the visual effect being used to minimize the window.

Prefer Tabs when Opening Documents
When selected, a window will open in a Tab as opposed to a new window.

Double-click a Window to Minimize or Zoom
When this is selected, you can set what happens when you double-click on a window toolbar. You can have it minimize into the Dock or Zoom to where you can see all the documents in a folder.

Minimize WIndows into Application Icon
When you minimize a window by clicking on the yellow dot, it minimizes into the documents and folders area on the right side of the Dock. When this is selected, it will minimize into the application icon. To open it again, you click on the application icon.

Animate Opening Applications
When this is selected, the icon in the Dock will animate while the application is being opened.

Automatically Hide and Show the Dock
When this is selected, the Dock will automatically hide. To see the Dock, you move your cursor to where the dock is placed, but default this is at the bottom.

Show Indicators for Open Applications
When selected, this will place a dot below the application icon in the Dock when the application is open.

Show Recent Applications in Dock
This is new in macOS Mojave. The dock shows your recent applications between your favorite applications and your documents and folders. To hide this section, you deselect this.

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Tutor for macOS Mojave

Hiding Applications

In this lesson for macOS Mojave on the Mac, I look at how to hide your open applications as well as how to hide all your other open applications and keep your frontmost application visible.

Hiding Your Application
When you are working in an application, as an example, you are working on a Pages document, and you want to work in another application, you can hide your current application, in my example, you’d hide Pages. When you hide an application, it does not quit it or close the windows, it just hides all the open windows. To hide your application you are working in, just go to the application name in the Menu Bar, when you click on the application name, you will see Hide. Select this, and your application will be hidden.

Hiding other Applications
You can also hide all your other open applications to focus on your frontmost application. When you do this, the Mac will hide all the windows of your other application. It does not close them or quit out of the app, it just hides them so you can work in your frontmost application without any distractions.

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